Checklist of the birds of Sardinia

From: Grussu M. 2001. Checklist of the birds of Sardinia. Updated to December 2001. Aves Ichnusae 4:2-55.

Abbreviations and symbols
A = Accidental
B = Breeding
c. = About
E = Summer Visitor
ind. = Individuals
irr = Irregular
M = Migrant
n.d. = No certain data available
par = Partial, Partially
reg = Regular
S = Sedentary or Resident
W = Wintering
(W) = Species occurring accidentally in winter without staying
? = uncertain status

The status specified in the present paper was recorded after about 1985. The historical status is also indicated whenever it is significant or very different compared to the recent status.
Where I have used more than one symbol for one species, the sequence must be considered in a decreasing order of importance. In order to provide the reader with information as detailed as possible, I decided to make a distinction between the real wintering "W" and the mere winter occurrence "(W)", even though I realise the difficulty of estimating the attribution of a certain category in some instances.
I also deemed it useful to indicate with an "E" (Summering) those species which occur in Sardinia as adult individuals during their breeding period in a habitat suitable for breeding, although they are not considered as possible breeding species (B?) at the moment. The same symbol, linked to the status of breeding species, indicates the occurrence of a population decidedly exceeding the number of ascertained breeding individuals. The indication "par" linked to "SB" means a species whose population, fundamentally sedentary, is partially migrant. Linking the symbols of sedentary and migrant &/or winter visitor (e.g. SB, M reg, W) means that, as far as the species in question is concerned, together with a sedentary population, we have recorded the occurrence of a migratory population and of a winter visitor to the island. For the accidental species with a number of reports between 6 and 10, only the number of records is given (e.g. A-8). Over the 10th report, the species is referred to as irregular migrant (M irr). Further indications of accidental species reported in scientific literature, or popular scientific works not mentioned in this paper (Puffinus gravis, Egretta gularis, Tadorna ferruginea etc.), were carefully analysed but are not considered valid at the present time. Their exclusion is based upon the fact that there are serious doubts as to the authenticity or origin of the recorded individuals. In some instances the record of the same individual was collected several times in adjacent sites. For reports of accidental species of national relevance we followed the directions suggested by the Comitato di Omologazione Italiano (COI) and the Comitato Italiano Rarità (CIR). For further information about the birds of Sardinia (Endemic forms, Extinct species, Immigrant species etc.), see the work in Aves Ichnusae (2001) 4: 2-55. For further information about breeding species and their distribution and population in the island, see Grussu (1995b, 1996b).
In order to improve the status and checklist of Sardinian birds, I intend to update this work regularly. My thanks in advance to anyone who is able to provide useful information and observations in order to bring this list up to date. All contributions will be recorded in the next updating of the checklist.
This is the official reference checklist of the Gruppo Ornitologico Sardo.

Annotated species checklist updated to December 2001

1. Gaviiformes

Red-throated Diver Gavia stellata M irr, W irr
Black-throated Diver Gavia arctica M irr, W irr
Great Northern Diver Gavia immer A-1

2. Podicipediformes

Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis SB, M reg, W
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus M reg, W reg, B reg, S ?
Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena A-2
Slavonian Grebe Podiceps auritus A-1
Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis M reg, W reg, B ?

3. Procellariiformes

Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea M reg, B reg, W reg
Great Shearwater Puffinus gravis A-1
Levantine Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan SB, M ?
Little Shearwater Puffinus assimilis A-1
Wilson’s Storm-petrel Oceanites oceanicus A-2
European Storm-petrel Hydrobates pelagicus B reg, S ?
Leach’s Storm-petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa A-1

4. Pelecaniformes

Northern Gannet Morus bassanus M reg, W reg
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo M reg, W reg, SB
Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis SB
Pygmy Cormorant Phalacrocorax pygmeus A-4
White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus A-1

5. Ciconiiformees

Great Bittern Botaurus stellaris M reg, W reg, B extintc ?
Little Bittern Ixobrychus minutus M reg, B reg, W irr
Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax M reg, B reg, W reg
Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides M reg, B reg, W irr
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis SB par
Western Reef Heron Egretta gularis A-8, (W), B ?
Little Egret Egretta garzetta M reg, W reg, B reg
Great White Egret Egretta alba W reg, M reg, E irr
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea M reg, W reg, B ?
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea M reg, B reg, (W)
Black Stork Ciconia nigra M reg, W reg ?
White Stork Ciconia ciconia M reg, W irr, B
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus M reg, W reg, B irr
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia M reg, W reg, E irr

6. Phoenicopteriformes

Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus SB par, M reg, W reg

7. Anseriformes

Mute Swan Cygnus olor B irr (Introduced); W irr
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus A-1
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus M reg ?
Bean Goose Anser fabalis M irr, (W)
Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus A-1
White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons M reg, W reg
Greylag Goose Oca selvatica Anser anser M reg, W reg
Canada Goose Branta canadensis A-1
Brent Goose Branta bernicla A-2
Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis A-1
Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea A-4
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna M reg, W reg, B reg, E
Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope M reg, W reg
Gadwall Anas strepera M reg, W reg
Common Teal Anas crecca M reg, W reg, E irr, B
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos M reg, W reg, SB
Pintail Anas acuta M reg, W reg, E irr
Garganey Anas querquedula M reg, B irr, E
Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata M reg, W reg, E reg ?, B irr
Marbled Duck Marmaronetta angustirostris A-5
Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina M reg, W reg, B reg
Common Pochard Aythya ferina M reg, W reg, B reg, E
Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca M reg, W reg, E reg, B irr
Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula M reg, W reg, E, B
Greater Scaup Aythya marila M reg, W reg
Common Eider Somateria mollissima M irr, W irr
Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis A-3
Common Scoter Melanitta nigra M irr, W irr
Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca M irr, W irr
Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula M irr, W irr
Smew Mergellusus albellus M irr, W irr
Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator M reg, W reg
Goosander Mergus merganser M irr, W irr (XIX century); A
Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis A- 9
White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala SB extinct

8. Accipitriformes

European Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus M reg, B ?, (W)
Black Kite Milvus migrans M reg, B irr, W irr, E
Red Kite Milvus milvus SB, M reg
White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla SB extinct; M irr, W irr
Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus SB extinct; M irr
Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus A-3
Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus SB (partially restoked)
Monk Vulture Aegypius monachus SB extinct
Short-toed Eagle Circaetus gallicus M reg, B ?, (W)
Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus SB, M reg, W reg
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus M reg, W reg
Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus M irr
Montagu’s Harrier Circus pygargus M reg, B reg
Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis SB
Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus SB, M, W ?
Common Buzzard Buteo buteo SB, M reg, W
Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus A-3
Rough-legged Buzzard Buteo lagopus A-3
Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina A-2
Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga A-4
Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax A-2
Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis A-3
Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos SB
Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus M reg ?, W irr
Bonelli’s Eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus SB ?
Osprey Pandion haliaetus B extinct; M reg, W reg, E reg

9. Falconiformes

Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni M reg, B reg, W irr
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus SB, M reg
Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus M reg, (W)
Merlin Falco columbarius M reg, W reg ?
Hobby Falco subbuteo M reg, B reg
Eleonora’s Falcon Falco eleonorae M reg, B reg
Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus A-3
Saker Falcon Falco cherrug M irr, W irr
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus SB, M reg, W reg
Barbary Falcon Falco pelegrinoides A-2

10. Galliformes

Northern Bobwhite Quail Colinus virginianus SB extinct ? (Introduced)
Barbary Partridge Alectoris barbara SB
Common Quail Coturnix coturnix M reg, B reg, W reg
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus SB (Introduced)

11. Gruiformes

Water Rail Rallus aquaticus SB, M reg, W reg
Spotted Crake Porzana porzana M reg, B
Little Crake Porzana parva M reg, (W), E
Baillon’s Crake Porzana pusilla M reg, B irr, E reg ?
Corn Crake Crex crex M reg ?
Moorhen Gallinula chloropus SB, M reg, W reg
Allen’s Gallinule Porphyrula alleni A-1
Purple Swamp-hen Porphyrio porphyrio SB
Common Coot Fulica atra M reg, W reg, SB
Red-knobbed Coot Fulica cristata A-2
Common Crane Grus grus M reg, W reg
Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax SB
Great Bustard Otis tarda A-1

12. Charadriiformes

Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus M reg, B ?, W irr
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus M reg, B reg, W reg
Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta M reg, B reg, W reg
Stone-curlew Burhinus oedicnemus SB, M reg, W reg
Cream-coloured Courser Cursorius cursor A-4
Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola M reg, B reg ?
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius M reg, B reg, W reg
Great Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula M reg, W reg
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus M reg, W reg, SB
Dotterel Charadrius morinellus M reg
European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria M reg, W reg
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola M reg, W reg
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus M reg, W reg
Red Knot Calidris canutus M reg, W
Sanderling Calidris alba M reg, W reg
Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis A-1
Little Stint Calidris minuta M reg, W reg
Temminck’s Stint Calidris temminckii M reg, W reg
Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotus A-1
Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea M reg, W ?
Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima A-4
Dunlin Calidris alpina M reg, W reg
Broad-billed Sandpiper Limicola falcinellus M irr
Ruff Philomachus pugnax M reg, W reg
Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus M reg, W reg
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago M reg, W reg
Great Snipe Gallinago media M reg
Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus A-1
Woodcock Scolopax rusticola M reg, W reg
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa M reg, W reg
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica M reg, W reg
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus M reg, W
Slender-billed Curlew Numenius tenuirostris M reg, W (XIX century); A
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata M reg, W reg
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus M reg, W reg
Common Redshank Tringa totanus M reg, W reg, B reg, E
Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis M reg, W irr
Greenshank Tringa nebularia M reg, W reg
Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes A-3
Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus M reg, W irr
Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola M reg, W
Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus A-5
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos M reg, W reg, B ?
Turnstone Arenaria interpres M reg, W reg
Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus M reg
Grey Phalarope Phalaropus fulicaria A-1
Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus A-3
Arctic Skua Stercorarius parasiticus M reg
Great Skua Catharacta skua M irr, W irr
Great Black-headed Gull Larus ichthyaetus A-3
Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus M reg, W reg, B irr
Little Gull Larus minutus M reg, W reg
Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus M reg, W reg, B reg, E
Slender-billed Gull Larus genei M reg, B reg, W reg
Audouin’s Gull Larus audouinii SB, M ?
Common Gull Larus canus M reg, W reg ?
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus M reg, W reg
Herring Gull Larus argentatus M reg, (W)
Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis SB par
Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans A
Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus A-2
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus A- 2
Ross’s Gull Rhodostethia rosea A-1
Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla M reg ?, (W)
Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica M reg, B reg
Caspian Tern Sterna caspia B extinct; M reg, E irr, (W)
Lesser Crested Tern Sterna bengalensis A-3
Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis M reg, W reg, B ?
Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii A-1
Common Tern Sterna hirundo M reg, B reg
Little Tern Sterna albifrons M reg, B reg
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus M reg, W irr
Black Tern Chlidonias niger B extinct; M reg, (W), E irr
White-winged Black Tern Chlidonias leucopterus M reg, E irr
Common Guillemot Uria aalge A-1
Razorbill Alca torda M irr, W
Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica M reg, W

13. Pteroclidiformes

Pin-tailed Sandgrouse Pterocles alchata A-1

14. Columbiformes

Rock Dove Columba livia SB
Stock Dove Columba oenas M reg, W, B ?
Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus SB, M reg, W reg
Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto SB
Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur M reg, B reg
Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis A-1

15. Cuculiformes

Great Spotted Cuckoo Clamator glandarius M reg, B irr, (W)
Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus M reg, B reg

16. Strigiformes

Barn Owl Tyto alba SB
Eurasian Scops Owl Otus scops SB par, M reg
Eagle Owl Bubo bubo A-1
Little Owl Athene noctua SB
Tawny Owl Strix aluco A-2
Long-eared Owl Asio otus M reg, W reg, B reg ?
Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus M reg, W reg

17. Caprimulgiformes

European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus M reg, B reg, (W)

18. Apodiformes

Alpine Swift Tachymarptis melba M reg, B reg
Common Swift Apus apus M reg, B reg
Pallid Swift Apus pallidus M reg, B reg, (W)

19. Coraciiformes

Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis M reg, W reg, B reg
European Bee-eater Merops apiaster M reg, B reg, (W)
European Roller Coracias garrulus M reg, B reg
Hoopoe Upupa epops M reg, B reg, W reg

20. Piciformes

Wryneck Jynx torquilla M reg, B reg, W reg
Green Woodpecker Picus viridis A
Great Spotted Woodpecker Picoides major SB
Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Picoides minor SB ?

21. Passeriformes

Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra SB, M reg
Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla M reg, B reg
Crested Lark Galerida cristata A-1
Wood Lark Lullula arborea SB, M reg, W reg
Sky Lark Alauda arvensis SB, M reg, W reg
Sand Martin Riparia riparia M reg, B irr
Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris SB
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica M reg, B reg, W reg ?
Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica M reg, B reg ?, (W)
House Martin Delichon urbica M reg, B reg, W ?
Richard’s Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae A-3
Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris M reg, B reg
Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis M reg
Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis M reg, W reg
Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus M reg
Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta M reg, W reg, B reg
Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava M reg, B reg
Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea SB, M reg
Pied Wagtail Motacilla alba M reg, W reg
Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus A-1
Dipper Cinclus cinclus SB ?
Wren Troglodytes troglodytes SB, M ?
Hedge Accentor Prunella modularis M reg, W reg
Alpine Accentor Prunella collaris M reg, W reg, B irr
Robin Erithacus rubecula SB, M reg, W reg
Rufous Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos M reg, B reg
Bluethroat Luscinia svecica M reg, W reg, B ?
Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros M reg, W reg
Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus M reg
Whinchat Saxicola rubetra M reg, B irr
Common Stonechat Saxicola torquata SB, M reg, W ?
Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe M reg, B reg, (W)
Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica M reg
Black Wheatear Oenanthe leucura SB ? (XIX century); A (XX century)
Rock Thrush Monticola saxatilis M reg, B reg
Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius SB
Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus M reg, W irr
Blackbird Turdus merula SB, M reg, W reg
Dark-throated Trush Turdus ruficollis A-1
Fieldfare Turdus pilaris M reg, W reg
Song Thrush Turdus philomelos M reg, W reg, E
Redwing Turdus iliacus M reg, W reg
Mistle Thrush Turdus viscivorus SB, M reg, W ?
Cetti’s Warbler Cettia cetti SB
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis SB, M ?
Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia M reg
Savi’s Warbler Locustella luscinioides M reg, (W), B ?
Moustached Warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon M reg, W reg, B ?
Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola M irr
Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus M reg, B ?
Paddyfield Warbler Acrocephalus agricola A-4, W irr
Blyth's Reed Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum A-1
Marsh Warbler Acrocephalus palustris M reg
Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus M reg, B reg, (W)
Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus M reg, B reg
Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais pallida A-8
Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina M reg
Melodious Warbler Hippolais polyglotta M reg
Marmora’s Warbler Sylvia sarda SB, M ?
Dartford Warbler Sylvia undata SB, M ?
Spectacled Warbler Sylvia conspicillata M reg, B reg, W reg
Subalpine Warbler Sylvia cantillans M reg, B reg
Sardinian Warbler Sylvia melanocephala SB, M ?
Orphean Warbler Sylvia hortensis A
Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia currunca A-5
Common Whitethroat Sylvia communis M reg, B irr
Garden Warbler Sylvia borin M reg; B
Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla SB, M reg, W
Western Bonelli’s Warbler Phylloscopus bonelli M reg
Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix M reg
Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita W reg, M reg, B ?
Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus M reg
Goldcrest Regulus regulus M reg, W reg, B ?
Firecrest Regulus ignicapillus SB, M ?
Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata M reg, B reg
Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva A-2
Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis M reg
Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca M reg
Bearded Tit Panurus biarmicus A-4
Long-tailed Tit Aegithalos caudatus A
Marsh Tit Parus palustris A-2
Coal Tit Parus ater SB
Blue Tit Parus caeruleus SB
Great Tit Parus major SB, M ?
Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria M reg, W, (E)
Short-toed Treecreeper Certhia brachydactyla A-2
Penduline Tit Remiz pendulinus M reg, W reg
Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus M reg, B
Isabelline Shrike Lanius isabellinus A-1 (OR, 1985)
Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio M reg, B reg, (W)
Lesser Grey Shrike Lanius minor M irr, B ?
Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor M irr, (W)
Woodchat Shrike Lanius senator M reg, B reg, (W)
Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius SB
Magpie Pica pica SB (Introduced)
Nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes A-2
Yellow-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax graculus A-2
Red-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax SB
Eurasian Jackdaw Corvus monedula SB, M ?
Rook Corvus frugilegus M irr, W irr
Carrion Crow Corvus corone SB, M ?
Common Raven Corvus corax SB
Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris M reg, W reg
Spotless Starling Sturnus unicolor SB
Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus A- 3
House Sparrow Passer italiae SB
Spanish Sparrow Passer hispaniolensis SB
Tree Sparrow Passer montanus SB
Rock Sparrow Petronia petronia SB, M
Snowfinch Montifringilla nivalis A-1
Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs SB, M reg, W reg
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla M reg, W reg?
European Serin Serinus serinus SB, M ?
Citril Finch Serinus citrinella A
Corsican Finch Serinus corsicana SB
Greenfinch Carduelis chloris SB, M reg, W
Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis SB, M reg
Siskin Carduelis spinus M reg, W reg; B
Linnet Carduelis cannabina SB, M reg, W reg
Common Redpoll Carduelis flammea A-1
Common Crossbill Loxia curvirostra M reg, W reg, E; B
Common Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula A
Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes SB, M reg, W reg
Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus A-1
Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis A-6
Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella A
Cirl Bunting Emberiza cirlus SB
Rock Bunting Emberiza cia A, (W)
Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana M reg, (W)
Rustic Bunting Emberiza rustica A-1
Little Bunting Emberiza pusilla A-3
Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus M reg, W reg
Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala A-3
Corn Bunting Miliaria calandra SB, M reg, W ?