Grussu* & Gruppo Ornitologico Sardo
Breeding birds in Sardinia (Italy). Status, distribution and population updated to2016.
This is an update to the "Status, distribution and population of breeding birds in Sardinia (Italy) to 1995" published at the end of the last century by the same author. This work examines the species that have been breeding in Sardinia since the nineteenth century (or just before) up to 2016. For each species it highlights status, size of population and map of distribution in the most recent period (about the last 5-10 years). It also analyzes: a) the possible breeding species; b) the supposedly extinct species; c) the species considered for a long time as more or less regular breeding in the island, but which lack recent evidence and therefore can be regarded as "likely extinct"; d) the dynamics of the population and the variation of the distribution of each species in the most recent period (trend). In 2016, the breeding species in Sardinia are 167. The most represented Order is that of the Passeriformes with 67 species (40.1% of the total), followed by Charadriiformes with 17 species (10.1%), the Accipitriformes with 14 species (8.3%), by Anseriformes with 13 species (7.7%) and the Pelecaniformes with 10 species (5.9%). Less represented orders are those of the Phoenicopteriformes, of the Ciconiiformes, of the Otidiformes, of the Caprimulgiformes and the Bucerotiformes, each with one species (0.59%). On the contrary, the most represented families are those of Anatidae and Accipitridae with 13 species (7.7% of the total), followed by the Fringillidae with 9 species (5.3%), from the Sylviidae and the Muscicapidae with 8 species (4.7%), and the Ardeidae with 7 species (4.1%), the Rallidae and the Corvidae with 6 species (3.5%) and Laridae, the Sternidae, the Falconidae and Hirundinidae with 5 species (2.99%). Out of a total of 143 species that we have evidence of breeding in a recent period, 132 (79% of the total) can be considered regular breeding, 11 species (6.5%) are irregular breeding, and 14 species (8.3%) are occasional breeding species. While for other 15 species breeding is possible/ probable. The total number of breeding birds corresponds to 46.1% of the species found on the island (= 362 species). For each species the recently breeding map is being shown with the indication of single pairs/ colonies and widespread distribution. For species which are vulnerable to anthropic disturbance or for species of high conservation value the range has been generally highlighted to avoid exact locationing. With the exclusion of the occasional breeding species, nine species can be considered extinct on the island: Oxyura leucocephala, Colinus virginianus, Pandion haliaetus, Gypaetus barbatus, Aegypius monachus, Aquila fasciata, Haliaeetus albicilla, Hydroprogne caspia and Chlidonias niger. To this list, in the very near future we could add Dendrocopos minor and Cinclus cinclus, of which we have no evidence of breeding for several years and/ or that are present with a very small number of mature birds. 55.5% of the extinct species belongs to the Falconiformes (5 species), 22.25% to the Charadriiformes (2 species) and the remaining 22.25% is distributed among the Orders of Anseriformes and of the Galliformes (one species for each Order). On the contrary, the immigrant breeding species in Sardinia since 1900 are 52, belonging to 15 Orders. The most represented is the Order of Passeriformes with 14 species and 26.9% of the total, followed by Charadriiformes with 9 species (17.3%), the Anseriformes with 8 species (15.4%) and Pelecaniformes with 6 species (11.5%), the Accipitriformes, the Gruiformes and the Psittaciformes with 3.8% (2 species for each order). The greatest number of extinctions occurred in the decade between 1961-1970 (no. 4, the 44.4% of the total), while the highest number of immigrations has been recorded in the decade between 1981-1990 (no. 13, the 25 % of the total) and in the decade between 1971-1980 (11 species, in the amount of 21.5% of the total). In particular, in the period between 1971-1990, 46.5% of the immigrant species has been discovered breeding for the first time in Sardinia since 1800. Compared to the analysis carried out at the end of last century and excluding the occasional breeding species, 23.8% of the breeding species in Sardinia (no. 34) showed a positive trend, 18.9% (no. 27) a negative trend, 44.7% (no. 64) a constant trend, while for the remaining 12.6% of species (no. 18 species) the trend is still unknown or uncertain.
Cavaliere d'Italia Himantopus himantopus/ Black-winget Stilt (Giuseppe Sedda)
Variazione numerica e spaziale degli uccelli acquatici nel Parco Naturale Regionale Molentargius-Saline (Sud Sardegna).
The Parco Naturale Regionale Molentargius-Saline, in southern Sardinia, Italy, is considered one of the most important areas for water birds in the island. The reserve comprises of a wide variety of habitat, including saltpans, freshwater ponds and Reed beds. Our study investigated the changes in spatial distribution of twenty-two bird species over the post-breeding and wintering season in three areas of this wetland in 2013. We have analysed the segregation of bird species inside the reserve and their movements across the seasons; namely, waders and Greater Flamingos are commonly found in relatively stable numbers in the saltpans, while Anatidae, Rallidae and Ardeidae species, including several rare ones (e.g. Night Heron, Purple Heron), favour the canals on the wetland border.
Jean-François Seguin* & Marcello Grussu
Regarding the origin of Bearded Vultures recently recorded in Sardinia.
The Bearded Vulture disappeared in the 1970s from Sardinia (Italy) as breeding bird. Nevertheless, in the following years there have been repeated sightings of the species on the island, with 11 records regarding 12 birds in the period between 1980-2014. Sightings are distributed in the whole time period and all seasons except summer. The majority gravitates in the central and northern part of the island and four sightings are coastal. Age of birds, observation dates and changing status of the species in Europe show that the majority, if not the totality, of these birds belong to the near (7 Km) island of Corsica. In Corsica a small population of Bearded Vulture is still existing (5 pairs in the 2015) geographically isolated since the overall decline of this species during the 20th century in Europe. Sardinia being an island where scavenging birds of prey have difficulties to survive due to poisoning, these movements threaten Bearded Vultures from Corsica. This may reduce the survival of individuals and endanger the low numbers of birds in Corsica.
Guglielmo Londi *, Gianni Sirigu, Tommaso Campedelli, Simonetta Cutini, Massimo Maria Pagani & Guido Tellini Florenzano
Notes on the distribution of the Goshawk in Sardinia.
In order to assess the distribution of the Corso-Sardinian Goshawk Accipiter gentilis arrigonii in Sardinia, we collected a series of data on breeding pairs status and localization: a) from our own observations relating to the period 2000-2011, b) from the literature and technical reports relating to the period 2000-2011, c) from existing data-sets (MITO2000, Ornitho.it) relating to the period 2000-2016 and d) from field surveys carried out in 2012 (and occasionally in the period 2013-2016). We found a minimum of 58 breeding pairs (38 confirmed, 10 probable, 10 possible); 38 pairs were detected at least once in the period 2010-2016, 11 pairs were observed in the period 2006-2009 and 9 pairs before 2006. Our data confirm the previously recorded distribution and substantially agree with the recent estimate of about 70 breeding pairs in Sardinia.
Anatra marmorizzata Marmaronetta angustirostris (adulti e giovani)/ Adult with ducklings of Marbled Teal (Massimiliano Podda)
Marcello Grussu*& Massimiliano Podda
New data on the breeding of Marbled Teal in Sardinia.
After the first case of nesting in 2013, the Marbled Teal regularly bred in Sardinia even in the period 2014-2016. Reproduction occurred on the same site with a pair per year, but with a progressive increase in the population: two adults in 2014, five in 2015 and eight in 2016. Individuals remain in the breeding area from May to September, the hatching of the eggs occurs in the period 14-23 June, the clutches consist of 4-15 chicks while 4-10/ pair were reared (an average of 8 chicks/ pair). The breeding habitat is a permanent pond with fresh water and rich vegetation of Phragmites australis, Juncus sp., Typha latifolia, Typha angustifolia and Carex sp .. The site is located in a highly polluted area due to excessive load of nutrients and heavy metals from the nearby mining areas and threatened by uncontrolled human pressure. But the regular summer presence of the species in 2012 and the breeding in this area show that in Sardinia there are habitats and ecological characteristics suitable for the stay of the species. In 2015, one of the adults had been ringed in captivity in Spain and released on the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands) in February 2009.